AIOU 4669 Social Theory Assignment Spring 2021



Q1. Discuss the effectiveness of the political institutions of the City States. Explain the ways these institutions solved the problems of the people politically?

Answer: 

Most modern political ideals such, for instance, as justice, liberty, constitutional government, and respect for the law-or a minimum of the definitions of them, began with the reflection of Greek thinkers upon the establishments of the city-state. however within the long history of political thought, the that means of such terms has been multifariously changed, and continuously that that means needs to be understood within the light-weight of the establishments by that the ideals were to be completed and of the society during which these establishments did their work. The Greek city-state was thus totally different from the political communities during which fashionable men live. It needs no tiny effort of the imagination to image its social and political life.

The Greek philosophers were thinking of political practices so much totally different from any that have prevailed normally within the present time. the full climate of opinion during which their work was done was totally different. although not while not analogies within the gift, their issues were ne'er just like fashionable issues. the moral equipment by that political life was evaluated and criticized varied wide from any that currently prevails.

To accurately perceive what their theories meant, it's necessary 1st to understand a minimum of roughly what quite establishments they'd in sight and what citizenship connoted, as a reality and ideal, to the general public for whom they wrote. For this purpose, the Athens government is vital, part as a result of it's the simplest far-famed however principally as a result of it had been associate degree object of special concern to the Greek philosophers greatest.

Social categories within the Ancient Greek city-state:-

As compared with fashionable states, the traditional city-state was passing tiny each within the space and in population. therefore the full territory of territory was solely a touch quite simple fraction the world of Rhode Island, and in population, Athens was comparable such a town as capital of Colorado or Rochester. The numbers ar passing unsure, however a figure somewhat over 300 thousand would be or so correct. Such a rendezvous of atiny low territory dominated by one town was typical of the city-state.

This population was divided into 3 main categories that were Politically and de jure distinct. At the lowest of the social scale were the slaves, for slavery was a universal establishment within the ancient world. Of all the inhabitants of Athens, maybe a 3rd were slaves.

Consequently, as establishment slavery was as characteristic of the city-state economy as wage-earning is of the trendy. It is true, of course, that the slave failed to count politically within the city-state. In Greek political orientation, his existence was taken as a right, even as the feudalistic ranks were taken as a right within the Middle Ages or as leader and worker relation is currently granted. typically his heap was deplored, and typically the establishment (though not its abuses) was defended,

But the relatively sizable amount of slaves–and still additional the exaggeration of their numbers-has given rise to a seriously dishonest  story. this is often the concept that the voters of the city-state formed-a leisure category which its political philosophy was, therefore, the philosophy of a category exempt from profitable labor.

This is associate degree virtually complete illusion. The leisure category in Athens might hardly are larger than it's in associate degree yankee town of equal size, for the Greeks weren't gilded and lived upon a really slender economic margin. If they'd additional leisure than the moderns, it had been as a result of they took it. The economic machine wasn't thus tightly double-geared. They acquired it with a lower normal of consumption. The simplicity and plainness of Greek living would be a significant burden to the trendy yankee.

Certainly, the overwhelming majority of Athenian voters should are tradesmen or artisans or farmers World Health Organization lived by functioning at their trades. There was no alternative method for them to measure. Consequently, like most men in fashionable communities, their political activities had to require place in such time as they may spare from their personal occupations.

It is true that Aristotle deplored this reality and thought it'd be fascinating to possess all manual work done by slaves so voters may need the leisure to devote themselves to politics. no matter is also thought of this ideal knowledge, it's sure that Aristotle wasn't describing what existed however was proposing a modification to boost politics.

Greek political orientation typically perfect a leisure category. In gentle states, the governing category may well be the squirearchy. Still, it's quite false to imagine that during a town like Athens, the voters were usually men whose hands were clean by labor.

The slaves being forgot, the second main cluster during a Greek town was composed of the resident foreigners or metrics. during a industrial town like Athens, the quantity of such persons may well be giant, and lots of of them wouldn't be transients. however there was no kind of legal naturalization, and residence extending over many generations would still leave a metric outside the citizen-body unless so he was taken in by inadvertence or connivance.

It was as if the initial Anglo Saxon yankee colonists had admitted immigrants from numerous lands however not extended them citizenship. just like the slave, the metric had no half within the city’s political life, although he was a freewoman and his exclusion silent no social discrimination against him.

Finally, there was the body of voters or people who were members of the town and entitled to participate in its political life. This was a privilege earned by birth, for a Greek remained a national of the town to that his oldsters belonged. Moreover, what citizenship entitled a person to was membership; that's, some minimum share of political activity or public business participation.

This minimum may well be no quite the privilege of attending town-meeting, that itself may well be of larger or less importance in keeping with the degree of democracy that prevailed, or it would embrace eligibility to a narrower or a wider vary of offices.

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