AIOU 5626 Print Media Assignment Spring 2021

Q1.   Describe historical context of news agencies .Also write an introduction to various national news agencies. 


News Agency Definition: “An organization that collects news things and distributes them to newspapers or broadcasters.” “A news organization is a corporation that gathers news reports and sells them to subscribing news organizations, like newspapers, magazines and radio and tv broadcasters.” History: solely some giant newspapers might afford bureaus outside their home town. They relied instead on news agencies, particularly Havas (founded 1835) in France and also the Associated Press (founded 1846) within the us. Former Havas workers supported Reuters in 1851 in Britain and anatomist in 1849 in Germany; Havas is currently Agency France-Presse (AFP). For international news, the agencies pooled their resources, in order that Havas, for instance, lined the French Empire, South America and also the Balkans and shared the news with the opposite national agencies. Types: There ar major 3 varieties of news agencies. These varieties ar categorised per countryside. 

The types of agencies include: 

• International or international or world news agency: The international news agencies perform on world wide scale. they need a powerful communication network and that they maintain correspondents altogether the foremost cities of the globe. Examples ar AP, fetoprotein and Reuters.

National news agency: The National news agencies sit down with the news agencies of a personal country. each country within the world has a minimum of one news organization. Examples are NAN, GNA etc. 

• native or continental or regional news agency: The continental or regional news agencies perform among a continent or a neighbourhood. These news agencies don't seem to be as made because the international news agencies. Few examples are PTI, PANA etc. international news agencies: though there are several news agencies round the world, the 3 international news agencies, have offices in most countries of the globe and canopy all areas of data. 

• Agency France-Presse(AFP) 

• Associated Press (AP) 

• Reuters industrial services: News agencies may be companies that sell news (e.g., news organisation, Thomson Reuters and United Press International). alternative agencies work hand in glove with giant media corporations, generating their news centrally and sharing native news stories the foremost news agencies might favour to devour and spread (i.e., Associated Press (AP), Agency France-Presse (AFP) or yankee press association (APA) and Indian press association PTI. Governments may management news agencies: China (Xinhua), the us of America (RFE/RL, RFA), Russia (ITAR-TASS), {and several and a number of alternative and several alternative} other countries have government-funded news agencies that additionally use data from other agencies likewise. Associations: There are many completely different associations of stories agencies. EANA is that the European Alliance of Press Agencies, whereas the OANA is AN association of stories agencies of the Asia-Pacific region. MINDS could be a international network of leading news agencies collaborating in new media business. National Agencies Definition: “A government or state agency, usually AN appointed commission, could be a permanent or semi-permanent organization within the machinery of state that's answerable for the oversight and administration of specific functions, like AN intelligence.” Functions: 

• to make sure that continuous service is provided. 

• to produce correct data. 

• try and be approved supply for any channels. National Agencies of West Pakistan: Some major national agencies of Pakistan include: • APP • PPI • INP

• North Borneo • NNI • ANN • on-line “APP” news organization Stand for: Associated press of West Pakistan Head office: Islamabad Islamabad Bureaus: • Karachi • city • city • Quetta • Rawalpindi News centres: • Sukkur • Multan • Quetta • city • Larkana • Hyderabad • Muzaffarabad and currently Gilgit-Baltistan .  History: Lack of monetary resources

Following Pakistan's independence, the new-born country's press was economically weak, and was therefore unable to financially support the agency. APP asked the govt. of West Pakistan for resource, that was granted within the sort of loans and subsidies. Government support enabled APP to buy the services of the world's news agencies and to open offices in major cities of West Pakistan. Government takeover Since its beginning once the independence of West Pakistan, the money state of affairs of APP continued  to deteriorate till it absolutely was on the verge of collapse. This was an immediate results of the withholding of payment of funds from the govt. of West Pakistan due towards APP from the Ministry of data and Broadcasting in an attempt to make a money crisis for the national news organization. within the early Nineteen Sixties, APP owed regarding Rs. eight lakhs (Rupees 800,000)to the government's Post and Telegraph Department and another Rs. twelve lakhs (Rupees 1200,000) in unpaid subscription fees to foreign news agencies. The {pakistan/Pakistan/Islamic Republic of West Pakistan/West Pakistan/Asian country/Asian nation} intervened and took over the agency on fifteen July 1961 following the directions of bound unconditional interests among the govt. of Pakistan. A government ordinance was issued for it. The given reason was to strengthen APP's money foundation. The takeover occurred with many changes: leader Tajuddin was removed and A K Qureshi, a senior government officer with some print media expertise, was employed as Administrator of APP. the pinnacle workplace of the agency was shifted to Islamabad, the new capital of West Pakistan. whereas the money position of the agency additional deteriorated, its coverage became additional biased because the government began to use it as a politician mouthpiece. A K Qureshi was a member of the unfortunate National Press Trust delegation traveling to London by herb Flight 705 that crashed at Cairo on might twenty, 1965. he's buried in an exceedingly mass grave at Cairo aboard his fellow passengers: victims of Pakistan's initial jet craft disaster.

Editorial operation The editorial perform of any news organization is that the same as that of a newspaper i.e. it's divided between news groups and also the news table. In smaller centers, the editorial workers consists of a newsman and sub- editor. The news team consists of regarding reporters, answerable for specific beats like economy, sports, crime, national and provincial assemblies or major government departments. These news desks ar answerable for copy-writing and for coordinating  activities of the news team.

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