AIOU 6506 Education in Pakistan Assignment Spring 2021



Q1. Highlight the role and functions of Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education. How these boards are contributing towards development of education?

Answer:

Boards of Intermediate and instruction square measure accountable to administer college and schools providing primary and instruction in Asian country. each bize conjointly administer the exams for such categories. each province has boards in major districts.

Responsibilities of BISEs

Public education is universally obtainable. college curricula, funding, teaching, employment, and alternative policies square measure set through domestically by college boards in compliance with over all provincial and federal policies. each provincial government takes care of standards at Intermediate and instruction level within the region by facilitate of bize at district level. Hence; each board is accountable to supply a clear examination system and analysis methodology. every bize in any province is controlled by one provincial Board of Education.

Objectives of the Board

Hold and conduct all Examinations touching on Intermediate Education, instruction, Classical and Pakistani Languages and such alternative Examinations as is also determined by Government. Lay down the conditions for admission to its Examinations to see the eligibility of candidates and to admit them to such Examinations. visit courses of study for its Examinations Lay down conditions for recognition of establishments. Accord, refuse or withdraw recognition, completely or part. review of establishments and prepare for review of recognized establishments and need review reports in respect of such establishments. Institute and award scholarships, medals and prizes within the prescribed manner. Grant certificates and diplomas to persons World Health Organization have passed its Examinations and to withdraw such certificates and diplomas

Functions of the Board

The functions of the Board are:-

Hold and conduct all Examinations touching on Intermediate Education, instruction, Classical and Pakistani Languages and such alternative Examinations as is also determined by Government.

Lay down the conditions for admission to its Examinations to see the eligibility of candidates and to admit them to such Examinations.

Prescribe courses of study for its Examinations.

Lay down conditions for recognition of establishments.

Accord, refuse or withdraw recognition, completely or part.

Inspection of establishments and prepare for review of recognized establishments and need review reports in respect of such establishments.

Institute and award scholarships, medals and prizes within the prescribed manner.

Grant certificates and diplomas to persons World Health Organization have passed its Examinations and to withdraw such certificates and diplomas.

In order to alter the Board to perform these varied functions with efficiency and effectively, these Boards were established as freelance autonomous bodies with the Governor of the province because the dominant Authority. Professionally Board is that the most competent body, because it contains the best functionaries of the provincial Education setup as members etc.


Q2. What are the problems related to curriculum development and implementation in Pakistan? Give some suggestions for betterment of the situation?

Answer:

The process of programme development is facing serious problems in Pakistan. These problems square measure interference of bureaucrats, the absence of involvement of college lecturers etc.

Experts sitting in programme development boards don't use educational resources properly for redaction superannuated sections of college textbooks. EAST offers innovative solutions for meeting the requirements of programme development in Pakistan.

What is Curriculum?

While pondering education, the foremost necessary concept that involves mind is programme. programme may be a channel that college administration wants for giving instructional and life skills to students.

However, unluckily, in Pakistani context, this concept is extremely misunderstood because of that students don't get enriched instructional expertise in faculties.

Curriculum doesn't amendment in Pakistan

Ghulam Haider in his article, “Process of programme Development in Pakistan,” says that programme isn't a static method, however it's a dynamic exercise that has got to endure changes consistent with society’s new demands.

In Pakistan, programme development may be a static method. There square measure several reasons for the failure in developing correct programme. a number of them square measure mentioned below.

Issues in programme development

1. programme is superannuated

Firstly, the programme is superannuated, that doesn't meet the native wants of Pakistani society. Raja Omer Shabbir in his article, “The programme issues,” notes that our gift generation is learning an equivalent information that previous 2 generations have learnt.

As students from completely different elements of the globe get tough mathematical and knowledge base by activity-based learning, our students square measure forced to grasp scientific ideas through cramming.

For example, at school textbooks of arithmetic at primary level, the ideas of shapes in pure mathematics lessons aren't written properly. One example is of sphere and circle. Most of the lecturers don't apprehend that a sphere may be a solid form and a circle may be a flat form. several lecturers teach students that the form of sun may be a circle and not a sphere.

It is unhappy scenario that specialists coming up with college textbooks of arithmetic at primary level don't listen to incorporate the construct of solid and flat shapes along.

2. Involvement of presidency officers

Secondly, each Haider and Shabbir note that involvement of presidency officers within the development of Pakistani programme is proving harmful to our education system.

Haider suggests that this method of programme development is predicated on a standardized policy for the complete country that has its specific aims and goals, however he thinks that it's unattainable to use national instructional policy to completely different regions of the country with equality.

For example, there square measure several underdeveloped areas of Pakistan, wherever oldsters don't have adequate resources to send their youngsters to varsities. The drop-out rate from faculties is high, as a result of oldsters cannot afford the expense of education simply.

Hence, a brand new instructional policy should be created by government officers for poor students, so their issues of education are often solved .One way of doing this is often to make faculties, wherever students square measure allowed to check in night time, and wherever books having basic information concerning core subjects like English, arithmetic, Science, Urdu and Islam square measure educated by trained lecturers.

3. Lack of educational analysis

Thirdly, the matter that the method of programme development faces in Pakistan is improper educational analysis for writing college textbooks. Haider points out those specialists sitting within the programme development boards use materials of their own selection for instruction in faculties.

He says that almost all of the days the chosen content isn't up to the mark. whereas probing textbooks approved by many board systems within the country, it becomes clear that no appropriate research/evaluation system is made to revise programme.

For example, in laptop books of sophistication ninth, students still learn serial and parallel ports. However, it's noted that every one electronic devices created in gift day square measure connected with computers by USB port.

4. Absence of college teachers’ involvement

Fourthly, it's seen that the educational expertise of lecturers from completely different faculties is additionally not thought-about in coming up with and redaction college programme. Daniel Tanner and Laurel N. Tanner in their book, “Curriculum Development: Theory into observe,” recommend that while not intelligent participation of college lecturers, meaning programme development won't be achieved.

Tanner and Tanner say that lecturers, World Health Organization square measure concerned in conveyance out instructional amendment, settle for and adopt the new concepts a lot of quickly than those lecturers World Health Organization aren't concerned in ending amendment. helpful proof suggests that in countries wherever knowledgeable lecturers weren't concerned within the programme development method, they failed to settle for new changes at school textbooks.

Result of weak educational skills of researchers

With lack of educational skills in researchers chargeable for coming up with programme for faculties, the foremost necessary feature of programme, i.e. content suffers plenty. Students follow rote-learning method, as a result of the content of their books doesn't match to their instructional skills.

In order to form students problem-solvers, Shabbir argues that our books should contain queries that relate to issues we have a tendency to face in our lifestyle. By responsive those queries, students can learn to resolve problems in tough things.

For example, whereas learning the construct of speed in science, students should lean queries associated with real-life samples of speed like speed of a automotive etc., so they apprehend the applying of the construct.

EAST’s contribution to finding programme issues

EAST has developed a programme that has activity-based learning to students and provides problem-solving skills to them.

For instance, our sciences books contain explore and project activities, wherever students square measure given a flavour of victimization knowledge base in their routine life. Science book of sophistication one includes a project termed as life cycle method, wherever students perceive the expansion cycle of a hen.

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