AIOU 6557 Educational Planning I Solved Assignment Spring 2021



Q1. How environmental analysis is important for sustainable planning? Discuss in detail with examples. Identify the cause of resistance to change and the means to overcome them.

Answer:

The environmental property drawback has tried troublesome to unravel. the fashionable environmental movement has tried to unravel the matter in an exceedingly massive kind of ways that. however very little progress has been created, as shown by severe ecological footprint overshoot and lack of adequate progress on the global climate change drawback. one thing at intervals the human system is preventing amendment to a property mode of behavior. That system attribute is general amendment resistance. amendment resistance is additionally called structure resistance, barriers to alter, or policy resistance.

Understanding amendment resistance needs seeing it as a definite and separate a part of the property drawback. Tanya Markvart's 2009 thesis on Understanding Institutional amendment and Resistance to alter Towards property explicit  that:

"It has conjointly been incontestable  that ecologically harmful and unjust institutional systems may be extremely resilient and proof against amendment, even within the face of social-ecological degradation and/or collapse (e.g., Berkes & Folke, 2002; Allison & Sir Jack Hobbs, 2004; Brown, 2005; Runnalls, 2008; Finley, 2009; Walker et al., 2009)."

The thesis focuses specifically on developing “an knowledge domain theoretical framework for understanding institutional amendment and resistance to alter towards property.”

Jack Harich's 2010 paper on amendment Resistance because the Crux of the Environmental property drawback argues there area unit 2 separate issues to unravel. A root cause analysis and a system dynamics model were accustomed make a case for how:

"difficult social issues like property should be rotten into 2 sequent subproblems: 

(1) the way to overcome amendment resistance then 

(2) the way to reach correct coupling. this is often the unchanged strategy of divide and conquers. By cleaving one huge drawback into 2, the matter becomes Associate in Nursing order of magnitude easier to unravel, as a result of we will approach the 2 sub issues otherwise and far additional fittingly. we tend to are not any longer inadvertently trying to unravel 2 terribly completely different issues at the same time."

Systemic amendment resistance differs considerably from individual amendment resistance. “Systemic suggests that originating from the system in such a way on have an effect on the behavior of most or all social agents of sure sorts, as opposition originating from individual agents.”  Individual amendment resistance originates from individual individuals and organizations. however the 2 disagree could also be seen during this passage

Presently environmentalism is targeted on finding the correct coupling subproblem. for instance, the subsequent area unit all correct coupling solutions. They commit to solve the direct explanation for the property problem's symptoms:

The urban center Protocol

The 3 Rs of scale back, reuse, recycle

More use of renewable energy

Better pollution management of the many types

Collective management of common-pool resources

Certification programs to cut back deforestation like PEFC and FSC

Contour farming to cut back wearing away

The revolution

Zero increase

The direct explanation for environmental impact is that the 3 factors on the proper facet of the I=PAT equation wherever Impact equals Population times richness (consumption per person) times Technology (environmental impact per unit of consumption). it's these 3 factors that solutions like those listed higher than obtain to cut back

Efforts here area unit thin as a result of environmentalism is presently not directed toward treating general amendment resistance as a definite and separate drawback to unravel.

On the way to specifically overcome the amendment resistance subproblem, Markvart examined 2 leading theories that gave the impression to supply insight into amendment resistance, Panarchy theory and New Institutionalism, and terminated that:[

"neither theory devotes vital attention to understanding the dynamics of resilient and resistant however inefficient and/or unproductive institutional and ecological systems. Overall, additional analysis is needed."

Taking a root cause analysis and system dynamics modeling approach, Harich fastidiously outlined the 3 characteristics of a root cause then found a main general root cause for each the amendment resistance and correct coupling subproblems. many sample resolution components for breakdown the basis causes were advised. the purpose was created that the precise resolution policies chosen don't matter nearly the maximum amount as finding the right general root causes. Once these area unit found, the way to resolve them is comparatively obvious as a result of once a root cause is found by structural modeling, the high leverage purpose for breakdown it follows simply. Solutions might then plough on specific structural points within the social organisation, that because of careful modeling can have fairly inevitable effects.

This reaffirms the work of Donella Meadows, as expressed in her classic essay on Leverage Points: Places to Intervene in an exceedingly System. the ultimate page explicit  that:

"The higher the leverage purpose, the additional the system can resist ever-changing it."

Here Meadows refers to the leverage purpose for breakdown the correct coupling subproblem instead of the leverage purpose for overcoming amendment resistance. this is often as a result of this focus of environmentalism is on correct coupling.

However, if the leverage points related to the basis causes of amendment resistance exist and may be found, the system won't resist ever-changing them. this is often a very important principle of social organisation behavior.

Resistance to alter is that the reluctance to adapt to alter once it's given. staff may be either naked or covert concerning their temperament to adapt to structure changes. this may vary from expressing their resistance publicly to inadvertently resisting amendment through their language or general actions.

While there may be Associate in Nursing endless variety of reasons why Associate in Nursing worker is proof against structure amendment, here area unit the 5 most typical reasons.

Objective and subjective worth judgments. Matching the data of insiders and outsiders, formal and informal info sources, quantitative and qualitative knowledge, is crucial to make up a typical understanding of the dynamics and complexness concerned

When staff don't trust or feel assured within the person creating the amendment, their resistance thereto may be an enormous barrier. In fact, amendment consultant and author Rick Maurer believes that lack of confidence in change-makers could be a explanation for resistance to alter in organizations that's most frequently unnoted. Maurer’s 3Levels of Resistance to alter are: I don’t latch on, I don’t am passionate about it, and that i don’t such as you. That’s right individuals might not resist the amendment itself however rather the person creating it. Of course, “you” doesn't perpetually confer with the change-maker specifically. It might even be somebody the change-maker represents, like company headquarters or a faceless  chief operating officer.

Changing the established order is troublesome, and plenty of individuals can have emotional reactions to something that upsets their routine. this is often a natural and inevitable response. Brushing it off can solely cause stronger resistance

Promotion of company social responsibility (CSR) has been accustomed try and overcome amendment resistance to finding social issues, as well as environmental property. This resolution strategy has not worked well as a result of it's voluntary and doesn't resolve root causes. Friedman explained why CSR fails: "The social responsibility of business is to extend profits." Business can't be accountable to society. It will solely be accountable to its shareholders.

Defining a typical vision and strategic goals is vital as living and environmental management systems are getting additional advanced and additional uncertainties area unit concerned. It raises the question of the way to conceive the arrange, that contents area unit necessary and the way to ‘manage’ the arrange, so as to be useful in hit or miss and dynamic context. As a result, the requirement for additional reconciling management systems supported strategic goals has been stressed. a good watching system could be a important element of such systems.

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