AIOU 837 Education Research Solved Assignment Spring 2021

Q1. Define different forms of hypothesis and also discuss the characteristics of hypothesis.


Definition of hypothesis 

A hypothesis could also be outlined as a logically conjectured relationship between 2 or additional variables, expressed within the variety of a testable statement. Relationship is planned by employing a sturdy logical argumentation. This logical relationship could also be a part of theoretical framework of the study. 

Forms of hypothesis 

Descriptive Hypothesis

Descriptive hypothesis contains only 1 variable thereby it's additionally known as as univariate hypothesis. Descriptive hypotheses generally state the existence, size, form, or distribution of some variable.

The first hypothesis contains only 1 variable. It solely shows the distribution of the extent of commitment among the officers of the organization that is more than average. Such a hypothesis is associate example of a Descriptive Hypothesis.

Researchers typically use analysis queries instead of descriptive hypothesis. as an example an issue will be: what's the extent of commitment of the officers in your organization.

Relational Hypothesis

These area unit the propositions that describe a relationship between 2 variables. the connection might be non-directional or directional, positive or negative, causative or just reciprocity. whereas stating the connection between the 2 variables, if the terms of positive, negative, more than, or but area unit used then such hypotheses area unit directional as a result of the direction of the connection between the variables (positive/negative) has been indicated (see hypotheses three and 4). These hypotheses area unit relative additionally as directional. The directional hypothesis is that the one during which the direction of the connection has been given.

Non-directional hypothesis is that the one during which the direction of the association has not been given. the connection could also be terribly sturdy however whether or not it's positive or negative has not been postulated (see hypothesis 2)

Correlational hypotheses

State simply that the variables occur along in some given manner while not implying that one causes the opposite. Such weak claims area unit typically created once we believe that there area unit additional basic causative forces that have an effect on each variables. For example:

Level of job commitment of the officers is completely related to their level of potency

Here we tend to don't create any claim that one variable causes the opposite to vary. that may be attainable on condition that we've management on all alternative factors that would influence our variable quantity

Explanatory (causal) hypotheses

Imply the existence of, or a amendment in, one variable causes or ends up in a amendment within the alternative variable. This brings within the notions of freelance and also the dependent variables. Cause means that to “help create happen.” that the experimental variable might not be the only reason for the existence of, or amendment within the variable quantity. The man of science might got to determine the opposite attainable causes, and management their

effect just in case the causative impact of experimental variable needs to be determined on the variable quantity. this might be attainable in associate experimental style of analysis.

Different ways to state hypotheses

• Hi motivation causes hi potency.

• Hi motivation ends up in hi potency.

• Hi motivation is said to hi potency.

• Hi motivation influences hi potency.

• Hi motivation is related to hi potency.

• Hi motivation produces hi potency.

• Hi motivation ends up in hi potency.

• If hi motivation then hi potency.

• the upper the motivation, the upper the potency

Null Hypothesis

It is used for testing the hypothesis developed by the man of science. Researchers treat proof that supports a hypothesis otherwise from the proof that opposes it. they offer negative proof additional importance than to the positive one. it's as a result of the negative proof tarnishes the hypothesis. It shows that the predictions created by the hypothesis area unit wrong. The null hypothesis merely states that

there is no relationship between the variables or the connection between the variables is “zero.” that's however symbolically null hypothesis is denoted as “H0”

Alternative Hypothesis

The alternative (to the null) hypothesis merely states that there's a relationship between the variables below study. In our example it may be: there's a relationship between the extent of job commitment and also the level of potency. Not solely there's associate association between the 2 variables below study however additionally the connection is ideal that is indicated by the quantity “1”. Thereby the choice hypothesis is symbolically denoted as “H1”. It will be written like this:

H1: there's a relationship between the extent of job commitment of the officers and their level of potency.

Research Hypothesis

Research hypothesis is that the actual hypothesis developed by the man of science which can additionally recommend the character of relationship i.e. the direction of relationship. In our example it may be: Level of job commitment of the officers is completely related to their level of potency.

Characteristics of hypothesis 

• Hypothesis should be conceptually clear. The ideas employed in the hypothesis ought to be clearly outlined, operationally if attainable. Such definitions ought to be normally accepted and simply communicable among the analysis students.

• Hypothesis ought to have empirical referents. The variables contained within the hypothesis ought to be empirical realities. just in case these aren't empirical realities then it'll not be attainable to form the observations. Being unfit by the info assortment, it should not be attainable to check the hypothesis. wait for words like ought, should, bad.

• Hypothesis should be specific. The hypothesis mustn't solely be specific to an area and state of affairs however additionally these ought to be narrowed down with relevance its operation. Let there be no international use of ideas whereby the man of science is victimisation such a broad construct which can all inclusive  and should not be able to tell something. as an example someone might try and propose the connection between urbanization and family size. affirmative urbanization influences in declining the dimensions of families. however urbanization is such comprehensive variable that hide the operation of therefore

many alternative issue that emerge as a part of the urbanization method. These factors might be the increase in education levels, women’s levels of education, ladies management, emergence of twin wage earner families, decline in structure, accessibility to health services, role of mass media, and will be additional. so the worldwide use of the word ‘urbanization’ might not tell a lot of. thus it's instructed thereto the hypothesis ought to be specific.

• Hypothesis ought to be associated with obtainable techniques of analysis. Hypothesis might have empirical reality; still we tend to area unit searching for tools and techniques that would be used for the gathering of knowledge. If the techniques aren't there then the man of science is unfit. Therefore, either the techniques area unit already obtainable or the man of science is in a very position to develop appropriate techniques for the study.

• Hypothesis ought to be associated with a body of theory. Hypothesis needs to be supported by theoretical argumentation. For this purpose the analysis might develop his/her theoretical framework that may facilitate within the generation of relevant hypothesis. For the event of a framework the man of science shall depend upon the present body of information. In such an endeavor a association between the study in hand and also the existing body of information will be established. that's however the study may gain advantage from the present information and presently through testing the hypothesis may contribute to the reservoir of information.

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