AIOU 840 Educational Psychology Assignment Spring 2021


Q1. Distinguish between primary and secondary needs.


American man of science Henry Murray developed a theory of temperament that was organized in terms of motives, presses, and needs. Murray delineated  desires as a "potentiality or readiness to retort in an exceedingly bound manner beneath bound given circumstances."

Murray's styles of desires

Theories of temperament supported desires and motives recommend that our personalities area unit a mirrored image of behaviours controlled by desires. whereas some desires area unit temporary and dynamic , alternative desires area unit additional deeply sitting in our nature.

According to Murray, these mental desires perform totally on the unconscious level however play a serious role in our temperament. Murray known desires in concert of 2 types:

Primary desires: Primary desires area unit basic needs that area unit primarily based upon biological demands, like the requirement for element, food, and water.

Secondary desires: Secondary needs area unit usually psychological, like the requirement for nurturing, independence, and accomplishment. whereas these desires won't be basic for basic survival, they're essential for psychological well-being.

Psychogenic desires

The following could be a partial list of twenty four desires known by Murray and his colleagues. in step with Murray, all folks have these desires, however every individual tends to possess an explicit level of every want.1 every person's distinctive levels of desires play a task in shaping their individual temperament.

Each want is very important in and of itself, however Murray conjointly believed that desires will be reticulated, support alternative desires, and conflict with alternative desires. as an example, the requirement for dominance could conflict with the requirement for affiliation once to a fault dominant behaviour drives away friends, family, and romantic partners.

Murray conjointly believed that environmental factors play a task in however these mental desires area unit displayed in behaviour. Murray known as these environmental forces "presses."

Ambition desires

Ambition desires area unit associated with the requirement for accomplishment and recognition. the requirement for accomplishment is usually expressed by succeeding, achieving goals, and overcoming obstacles. the requirement for recognition is met by gaining social rank and displaying achievements. typically the ambition desires even involve a necessity for exhibition, or the need to shock and thrill people.

Materialistic desires

The materialistic desires center on the acquisition, construction, order, and retention. These desires typically involve getting things, like shopping for material objects that we tend to want. In alternative instances, these desires compel North American nation to form new things. getting and making things area unit a vital a part of the materialistic desires, however keeping objects and organizing them is additionally necessary.

Power desires

The power desires tend to center on our own independence in addition as our have to be compelled to management others. Murray believed that autonomy was a strong want involving the need for independence and resistance.

Other key power desires that he known embody abasement (confessing and apologizing), aggression (attacking or ridiculing others), blame turning away (following the principles and avoiding blame), deference (obeying and cooperating with others), and dominance (controlling others).

Affection desires

The affection desires area unit focused on our want to like and be fair-haired. we've a necessity for affiliation and hunt down the corporate of people. Nurturance, or taking care of people, is additionally necessary for psychological well-being. the requirement for succorance involves being helped or protected by others. Murray conjointly recommended that play and having fun with people was conjointly a vital warm heartedness want.

While most of the love desires a middle on building relationships and connections, Murray conjointly recognized that rejection might even be a necessity. Sometimes, turning folks away is a vital a part of maintaining mental upbeat. Unhealthy relationships will be a serious impairment to somebody's well-being, thus typically knowing once to run away will be necessary.

Information desires

The information desires focus on each gaining information and sharing it with others. in step with Murray, folks have associate degree innate have to be compelled to learn additional concerning the planet around them. He stated cognizance because the have to be compelled to ask for information and raise queries.

In addition to gaining information, he conjointly believed that individuals have a necessity for what he stated as exposition. Exposition is that the want to share what they need learned with people.

Q2. Explain Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. What are its applications in learning? How are some typical problems in learning explained by it?    


Skinner, Associate in Nursing man of science was the pro-pounder of this theory. it's the idea of connectionism. To Skinner the essential unit of behavior is S.R. Connection. Learning is forming of bonds (connections) between S (Stimulus) and R (Response).

This S-R association depends on recently, frequency, intensity and vividness of the experiences, capability and readiness of the learner. These bond connections area unit shaped through Trial and Error.

It suggests that one learns by creating trials, creating errors or mistakes throughout the trials and creating any trials, eliminating the incorrect responses. thus learning takes place, slowly by the method of trial and error. so as to learning one thing a learner makes many trials wherever some responses don't offer satisfactory results, however he goes on creating any trials until he gets satisfactory responses.


A hungry cat of twenty four hours was placed within a Puzzle box or cage. wherever a liver was connected to open the door. A fish was placed outside the box. Seeing the sight of fish the cat created many trials in-side the cat so as to induce the fish.

After creating many jumping or trials her leg was placed on the liver. because it is connected by liver that helped the cat to open the door. The door was opened and also the cat came to outside and Ate the fish. once more a similar cat was place within the cage that was twenty four hours hungry on consecutive day. She took less time and place the leg on the liver and door was opened.

Then he came out and Ate the fish. once doing one once at some point then the cat at intervals no moment he place his leg on the liver and also the door was opened. He came out suddenly and Ate the fish. this is often his learning that is formed unproved  and error technique.

On the idea of the information gathered by him from his experiments on the educational of animals developed sure laws of learning. Skinner has highlighted 3 necessary laws of learning.

 (i) Law of Readiness

(ii) Law of Exercises

(iii) Law of result

(i) Law of Readiness:

It emphasizes on readiness to be told. The law of readiness states that “When any conductivity unit isn't in readiness to conduct, for it to conduct is annoying. once any conductivity unit is in readiness to conduct for it to not do thus is annoying.

On the opposite hand it suggests that, once a learner is prepared to induce (learn) he will learn quickly and effectively. this means that the learner should be mentally ready to be told. Readiness suggests that readiness each physical and psychological.

Physical readiness is closely associated with the physical growth and sound health free from diseases. Psychological readiness refers to the interest, zeal, inclination, enthusiasm and temperament to be told.

Readiness depends on 3 main factors such as:

(a) Maturation

(b) Experiences—training or previous learning and

(c) Favorable physical, psychological and environmental components contributing for learning.

Educational implication:

The law of readiness contains a variety of academic implications:

a. Curriculum, program area unit to be ready as per the learner’s age, ability, and normal.

b. acceptable strategies of teaching area unit elite material to the mental maturity of the scholars.

c. Teacher should use audio-visual aids in teaching learning once learners area unit able to learn.

d. academics and oldsters shouldn't be over ambitious; rather they ought to wait until the kid becomes able to learn.

e. Teacher is to encourage the kid before beginning this teaching work.

f. Learners ought to be engaged in info activities observant their readiness and curiosity for brand new things.

(ii) Law of Exercise:

Law of exercise tells that learning takes place by doing or by actively taking part or by elbow grease any work. In actual follow a person learns once he will and one doesn't learn, if he doesn't do. Learning is permanent. once one will drill, follow or repeat through exercise This law is split into 2 elements like law of use and law of neglect.

Law of use:

It is known as law of follow. this offers stress on follow that makes a person excellent. this is often related to intensity and recently.

Law of disuse:

When a factor isn't continual or practiced over a protracted time it's slowly forgotten as a result of the strength of the association between S and R decreases. it's negative price of lack of follow.

Educational implications:

a. This law creates interest with pleasant result among the scholars.

b. issues associated with behaviour is resolved simply by this law.

b. It offers reward and penalty.

d. Undesirable behaviour or angle is removed by associating with this law.

e. Students from sensible habits once obtaining reward and penalty.

f. It makes learning practical and permanent.

g. Learning is simpler through drill, repetition, review, discussion, follow revision etc.

h. Forgetting is diluted.

i. dangerous habits is removed.

(iii) Law of Effect:

As per the read of Skinner law of result is “When modifiable association is formed between a state of affairs Associate in Nursing a response and is accompanied  or followed by a satisfying state of affairs the strength of association is enlarged and once such a association is formed and accompanied  or followed by an annoying state of affairs its strength is shrunken.”

This law says that if our efforts area unit in the middle of a sense of achievements or satisfaction, we tend to area unit any galvanized to be told and so, effective learning takes place. If our efforts don't seem to be in the middle of a sense of satisfaction, not abundant of real learning can present itself.

In different words it's aforementioned that a response {which offers which provides which supplies} action of the goal can give pleasure and so provides satisfaction, are going to be sealed in, whereas those that area unit in the middle of discontentment are going to be sealed out. This law has a very important concerning learning.

Educational implications:

a. the educational state of affairs provided by the teacher is pleasant.

b. It creates college activities fascinating.

c. every follow will certainly offers result.

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